SAH Blog


  • Destruction Looms for Arthur Erickson-designed Bank of Canada Atrium Garden

    By
    Michelangelo Sabatino with Maria Cook
     |
    Jan 22, 2014
    Via The Cultural Landscape Foundation

    The Bank of Canada’s garden and atrium in Ottawa, situated in a building between Canada’s first retail pedestrian mall and the federal institutional landscape, provide a welcoming public space in Canada’s capital city and exemplify architect Arthur Erickson’s skill as a maker of interior and exterior landscapes. The 12,749 square-foot atrium is now at risk of privatization and the garden threatened with destruction.



    History

    Bank of Canada, photo by Taxiarchos 228 via Wikimedia Commons.Located across from Parliament Hill, the Bank of Canada’s head office occupies a prominent site on Wellington Street, an address it shares with the Supreme Court of Canada, the Library and Archives of Canada, and until 1999, the Embassy of the United States. It is “one of Canada’s best 20th century buildings and a great example of the creative integration of old and new,” says Natalie Bull, executive director of the Heritage Canada Foundation. The centerpiece of the bank is an Art Deco granite building, constructed in the 1930s, flanked by symmetrical glass-and-copper-clad East and West Towers. The three buildings are connected by an atrium. The atrium and towers were designed by Arthur Erickson in collaboration with the firm Marani, Rounthwaite & Dick in the late 1960s and completed in 1979. A lush tropical garden, incorporating a reflecting pool, runs almost the length of the atrium. The green slate floor gently dips down toward the water which sits beneath a trellis of long wood beams. The result is a human-scaled and intimate experience within a 262-foot-high space.
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  • Nonprofit Leadership, the Gender Gap, and Architect Barbie: A Conversation with Wanda Bubriski

    By
    Victoria Solan
     |
    Jan 2, 2014

    In the fall of 2012, SAH formed its first Professional Development Committee, and charged the group with the task of exploring how SAH might support the diverse professional needs and ambitions of its members. The following exchange between committee members Victoria Solan, an independent historian, and Wanda Bubriski, founding executive director of the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation, is intended to start a conversation about how different career paths can unfold within the realm of architectural history. This blog post is also intended to draw attention to the varied professional roles available to our members, and to explore how one’s workplace expectations can change over time.

    Architect Barbie
    From Bauhaus to Dreamhaus—Architect Barbie on a recent site visit. Photo credit: Wanda Bubriski.

    Let’s start by talking about how you became a member of the Society of Architectural Historians. When did you join and what roles have you played in the organization?

    I’m a member of SAH’s Quarter-Century Club—meaning I’ve been a member for over 25 years—and joined when I was, well, in grade school obviously. I just finished a three-year term on the Board during which I served on the membership committee, and now on the Professional Development Committee. At Annual Meetings, I’ve given papers and co-chaired a session. On behalf of the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation (BWAF), I hosted several receptions and a film screening of A Girl is a Fellow Here” ~ 100 Women Architects in the Studio of Frank Lloyd Wright.

    From 2004 through 2012, you were the founding director of the BWAF, a nonprofit organization dedicated to increasing the visibility of women’s contributions to the building industry. Where did you gain the skills to lead such an organization? Is this the kind of position that you envisioned you would be in when you finished your graduate education? What kind of adjustments did you make along the way?

    My formal education never included something like “Introduction to Running a Nonprofit” —perhaps the closest thing was a graduate seminar in museum studies. My experience with advocacy and organizing started in high school, which developed into a deep commitment to public education and outreach. While working with the Sierra Club in Washington, D.C., I learned some effective strategies for leading campaigns and came to understand how a nonprofit functions. A big adjustment from the academic world to that of the nonprofit realm is moving from individual scholarship to a collective goal. Nonprofit leadership involves both inspiring and enabling others to realize the organization’s mission.

    Many SAH members, each at different stages in their careers, are trying to figure out how to navigate an imperfect world and forge something new for themselves or for others. One of the goals of this interview series is have SAH members share their concerns at different stages in their careers. May I ask how your professional priorities changed over the years? Have some of the concerns and challenges from the outset of your career eased, or intensified? 

    My concerns have intensified. It seems like an endless loop: the more learned reveals how much more we need to learn about the gender challenges facing us all. “Unforgetting Women Architects: From the Pritzker to Wikipedia,” the memorable and apt title of the recent essay by Despina Stratigakos published in the online journal Places, reminds us why we forget—including access to primary material and perhaps not enough of what Gwendolyn Wright calls “hubristic self-affirmation.”1 Stratigakos cites an incident this spring on the German Wikipedia site—where a post about Thekla Schild, one of the first women trained as an architect in Germany, was entered on the site, yet within minutes was erased by a male editor, denying her existence. Stratigakos ends her piece on the value of online databases by correctly asserting that “as the long and rich history of women in architecture becomes more broadly known, it will become that much harder to ignore them.”2

    We could say the same for architectural historians as well. SAH has the potential to fill a huge gap. For example, there are three glaring issues that I believe are pertinent to SAH members and point to a need for SAH to collect data:

    1. Publishing – It’s key to career success, but works by women comprise less than one-third of scholarly publishing.3 Let’s count up the articles and reviews published in JSAH from the past 10 years based on gender—is the female-male percentage equal, and does it reflect the same gender distribution of SAH membership?  
    2. Chronic Wage Gap between Men and Women – A female full professor at a doctoral institution makes 90.3% of what her male colleague earns, or 87.3% when aggregated into all institutions with academic rank.4
    3. The SAH Leaky Pipeline – Collect gender data on recent graduates over the past 10 years—who gets academic jobs, and who doesn’t? Is there a parallel here with architectural practice—which is fraught with variables that have little to do with design talent but a lot of other things including access to power such as clients and patrons?

    What if SAH helped to Divert the Pipeline toward career options outside of academia? I am hoping that the SAH Professional Development Committee will embrace such a diversion, which the approximately 20% of SAH members who are independent scholars will surely appreciate.

    Much of the mainstream media, as well as a well-meaning world of career advice, deploys the word ‘balance’ to describe the placing of an appropriate boundary between work and personal responsibilities. This word doesn’t ring true for me — it seems to veil a much more difficult conflict than one might reasonably resolve with a kitchen scale. Does it work for you, or should there be another word?

    I agree with you that “balance,” while desirable, is problematic—the problem being that the term invariably refers to women, not men. Do we ever hear about Mark Zuckerberg or Jeff Bezos struggling with a work-life balance? Why are men exempt from personal responsibilities? (Within the public discourse/ mainstream media that is, not necessarily within our personal domestic realms.) I believe that we have yet to understand the real questions to ask: what do the words “women” and “men” really mean? Not all women or all men are alike. If we pull apart the stereotypical generalities of the words in both academia and public discussion, how will that change the nature of the conversation?

    We can’t finish this conversation without a few words from Architect Barbie. How old is she now? Where has she been lately?

    I do not doubt for a second that Architect Barbie is, deep down, a closeted historian.  Since her debut at the AIA National Convention in 2011, she has attended two SAH Annual Conferences (Detroit and Buffalo). Her co-creators, historian Despina Stratigakos and architect Kelly Hayes McAlonie, infused her with a sense of the past and made sure she was a feminist. She’s been influenced by her global travels with me, and by her exposure to that eminence blanche, Beverly Willis. She has joined the women’s movement that is sweeping the country, but confesses that she’d prefer a pair of boots for walking, not teetering. Her only other worry is that historians have not proposed papers that qualify them for SAH’s annual Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation travel fellowship.

    Thank you for your time. I wish you and Architect Barbie many exciting adventures, and I hope this conversation can be the beginning of a productive dialogue about professional development among SAH members.



    1 Gwendolyn Wright in “Symposium Discussion: Architecture of Writing,” at Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2009, included with A Girl is a Fellow Here, directed by Beverly Willis, (New York: BWAF, 2009), DVD.

    2 Despina Stratigakos, “Unforgetting Women Architects: From the Pritzker to Wikipedia,” Places Journal at the Design Observer, 11/26/13.

    3 Based on data from 1991 to 2010, as cited in “Scholarly Publishing’s Gender Gap,” in The Chronicle of Higher Education, October 26, 2012. The article highlights an analysis of six fields and 24 subfields between 1991 and 2010—itself a subset of a huge investigation of gender and publishing based on about two million papers published since 1665 in nearly 1,800 fields and drawn from the collection of JSTOR. Within the field of history, from a total of 14,733 authors, 69.2% were male and 30.8% female.

    4 As cited in The Chronicle of Higher Education, 4/12/2013, p. A27; source: American Association of University Professors (http://www.aaup.org/sites/default/files/files/2013 Salary Survey Tables and Figures/Table 5.pdf). Link to the full report: http://www.aaup.org/our-work/research/annual-report-economic-status-profession

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  • Recent News on the Conversion into Mosques of Byzantine Churches in Turkey

    By
    Dr. Veronica Kalas, Ph.D.
     |
    Dec 12, 2013

    I have been asked to write a report for the International Center of Medieval Art newsletter concerning recent events in Turkey whereby Byzantine churches that long have held the status of state museums and cultural heritage sites are being converted into mosques. It is crucial to raise awareness about this very critical issue. The examples include the church of the Hagia Sophia in Iznik (Nicea), the church of the Hagia Sophia in Trabzon (Trebizond), and the plans for the church and associated monastic complex of St. John Stoudios in Istanbul (Constantinople). Although these events have been ongoing for quite some time, the world started watching more closely in recent months when certain representatives of the Turkish government publicly called for the conversion of THE Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. For every example, the original Byzantine church building testifies to the vast contribution of Byzantine culture and civilization to the history of medieval art and architecture and world architecture more broadly. These churches were converted into mosques under Ottoman rule and subsequently into museums under the Turkish Republic.

    Hagia Sophia
    Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (photo credit: Veronica Kalas)

    Although it has been reported that right-wing Turkish politicians and political parties introduced these ideas since the 1950s, in the last year or so the trend has been implemented and seems to be gaining momentum. The political background, individuals, and organizations involved in the issue is intricate and sensitive, as Andrew Finkel has discussed in “Mosque conversion raises alarm: Christian art in Byzantine church-turned-museum is at risk after controversial court ruling,” The Art Newspaper 245 (April 2013). The peg on which to hang the legality of these conversions stems from a multifarious set of maneuvers that includes the transfer of the right to care for the monuments from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to the Directorate General of Pious Foundations. This transfer is highly significant in the Turkish context as the two organizations adhere to separate rules, regulations, and approaches to historic monuments and museums that are often at odds with one another. In some ways these buildings embody a kind of secular state being taken over or occupied by a religious state within Turkey, although in essence the Directorate of Pious Foundations always had jurisdiction over the monuments, which technically have been leased to the Ministry to run as museums. The situation is very complicated, not entirely transparent, and is not the same for every case. Claims that some consider dubious are circulating by an MHP party member who introduced the bill in parliament to make legal the conversion of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul on the basis that the original document legalizing its conversion to a museum in the 1930s was a forgery, and therefore the building has maintained its status as a mosque since its initial conversion in the fifteenth century.

    Analysts have considered the issue from a variety of angles, from the attempt of some politicians within the current government to garner votes from the religiously conservative majority population in Turkey, to the wish to reclaim Turkey’s Ottoman past, to a direct antagonism toward Eastern Christianity for which these buildings are immensely symbolic. Largely left out of the news reports is a significant discussion of the damage these priceless structures face in the process of conversion, and their subsequent use as mosques from an archaeological and historic preservation point of view as Amberin Zaman has reported in The Economist, Al Monitor, and elsewhere. Unfortunately, the examples cited are only a fraction of a larger issue of the destruction of culturally and historically significant monuments worldwide.

    Hagia Sophia
    Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (photo credit: Veronica Kalas)

    Among many alterations to the building’s fabric, all religious imagery must be covered-- a process that inevitably leads to damage as has been demonstrated in the past. In the case of St. John Studios, the fifth-century church building would have to be rebuilt as a mosque as it is currently roofless. It has been reported that the proposed plan is to reconstruct the monument with a dome, which is entirely incongruous with the original design of the structure as a three-aisled basilica. Although individual academics and archaeologists from both within Turkey and internationally are openly opposed to this, thus far there has been no concerted effort put forth from any angle to voice an effective objection to these events. Particularly absent so far is any statement by international bodies concerned with cultural heritage preservation, such as UNESCO, ICOMOS, ICOM, and WMF among other organizations either from within Turkey or globally, to address the grave concerns about the fate of these invaluable buildings. Most likely the general perception is that there is no adequate way to deal with the complexity of the problem and any criticism from the outside would be perceived of as imposed from the ‘west’ and therefore ineffectual. I include below an archive of links to recent news items in English worthy of note to help anyone wishing to follow the events as they unravel.

    Dr. Veronica Kalas, Ph.D.
    vkalas@yahoo.com
    December 7, 2013

    Articles about the conversion of Byzantine churches to mosques in Turkey:

    On Hagia Sophia, Istanbul:

    http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-faith/turkish-leaders-want-to-convert-the-hagia-sophia-back-into-a-mosque/2013/12/04/0d84411e-5d27-11e3-8d24-31c016b976b2_story.html

    http://eurasianet.org/node/67836

    http://news.yahoo.com/istanbul-landmark-rekindles-religious-tensions-041113851.html?soc_src=mediacontentstory

    http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/hagia-sophias-precarious-future.aspx?pageID=449&nID=58843&NewsCatID=396

    http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-deputy-pm-expresses-hope-to-see-hagia-sophia-as-mosque.aspx?pageID=238&nID=57998&NewsCatID=338

    On Hagia Sophia, Trabzon:
    http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/08/another-byzantine-church-becomes-a-mosque.html

    http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21582317-fine-byzantine-church-turkey-has-been-converted-mosque-erasing-christian-past

    http://www.theartnewspaper.com/articles/Mosque-conversion-raises-alarm/29200

    On Hagia Sophia, Iznik
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/09/world/middleeast/the-church-that-politics-turned-into-a-mosque.html?pagewanted=all%3Fsrc%3Dtp&smid=fb-share&_r=0

    On St. John Studios, Istanbul

    http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/Default.aspx?pageID=238&nID=58526&NewsCatID=341

    http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=62866

    On the trend in general:

    http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2013/1118/Turkey-drops-a-screen-over-Christianity#.UouYNjo6vZg

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